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Death Introduction Most Kikuyu are Christians, and during my entire stay in Kenya nine months in two visitsI never met one Kikuyu who professed to be anything else.
So it came as something of a surprise when a search on the internet came up with the three photos you see below, two of which depict a rain ceremony addressed to Ngai God. The photos were taken in Marchand I must admit that my first reaction was that the images must A case for kenya essay been posed, or that the event had been staged for tourists.
The ceremony took place towards the end of a particularly long drought, which had also unclenched wildfires on Mount Kenya, whose forests are usually far too damp to burn for long.
The photos show that despite the wholesale culture shock that the Kikuyu have undergone over the last century, some aspects of the old ways remain, so much so that in times of real need - such as the drought - some Kikuyu still fall back on pre-Christian traditions, and will ask for help from the old God and the ancestors if the Christian faith fails their needs.
Mount Kenya ablaze with rampant wildfires due to a two year drought.
A witch doctor prepares to sacrifice a goat to bring rain to his drought-stricken area. Mount Kenya, March A villager dons a mask during a rain ceremony at the base of Mount Kenya, March Images are copyright Denise Rocco, with whose kind permission they are reproduced here.
There's more of her work at Denise Rocco Photography. I do not know to what extent this melding of old and new beliefs is still practised. I assume that the rain ceremony in the photos was exceptional, prompted as it was by an extreme situation.
Yet there are other signs, too, that the old ways have not been completely forgotten. The institution of elderhood may at first sight appear to be defunct, but here too, the Kikuyu have adapted and adopted to the new ways rather than simply discarding the old: Thus, the role of priests is not seen as solely being a religious one, but social, too.
In Nairobi, with its complex ethnic mix and live potential for violence between its various peoples, it is these priest-elders who take the good conduct of their society in hand, much as other peoples have also kept elements of social control over their own people.
For an excellent essay on the continuing survival of some traditional features of life, especially religion and elderhood in the modern setting, read Harold Miller's Kikuyu Elderhood as African Oracle external site; opens in new window. Ngai - the Creator Traditionally, as now, the Kikuyu were monotheists, believing in a unique and omnipotent God whom they called Ngai also spelled Mogai or Mungai.
The word, if not the notion, came from the Maasai word Enkai, and was borrowed by both the Kikuyu and Kamba. God is also known as Mungu, Murungu, or Mulungu a variant of a word meaning God which is found as far south as the Zambesi of Zambiaand is sometimes given the title Mwathani or Mwathi the greatest rulerwhich comes from the word gwatha, meaning to rule or reign with authority.
Ngai is the creator and giver of all things, 'the Divider of the Universe and Lord of Nature'. He gave birth to the human community, created the first Kikuyu communities, and provided them with all the resources necessary for life: He - for Ngai is male - cannot be seen, but is manifest in the sun, moon, stars, comets and meteors, thunder and lighting, rain, in rainbows and in the great fig trees mugumo or mugumu that served as places of worship and sacrifice, and which marked the spot at Mukurue wa Gathanga where Gikuyu and Mumbi - the ancestors of the Kikuyu in the oral legend - first settled.
Yet Ngai is not the distant God that we know in the West. He had human characteristics, and although some say that he lives in the sky or in the clouds, they also say that he comes to earth from time to time to inspect it, bestow blessings and mete out punishment.
When he comes he rests on Mount Kenya and four other sacred mountains.The Kenya Airways (KQ) is the flag-carrier airline of Kenya. It has been in operation since and has since grown to operate more intra-Africa flights than any other African airline.
In addition, the carrier has flights to Middle Eastern cities, Europe, Asia and the Far East. INTRODUCTION. The agitation for a new Constitution in Kenya was informed by various past historical injustices ranging from economic, social, cultural and civil to political matters.
Religion in Sub-Saharan Africa has changed and evolved over the last two to three thousand years in many different ways. While the traditions depicted in this chart provide examples of those that exist today, and that were affected by the expansion of European colonialism in the 19th century, peoples living in the vast area south of the Sahara desert had already sustained rich systems of.
The Case for the Redistribution of Ecotourism Gains in Kenya. Introduction Ecotourism, also known as “responsible tourism”, is defined as “responsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people”. In Kenya many cases of squatting result from the previous land not being put in place or developed.
This is attributed to the existence of an opportunity in the on start of the construction and continuous absence of that person from the land for a long time. A CASE OF POVERTY IN KENYA INTRODUCTION MEANING OF POVERTY The synonyms of poverty can be said to be beggary, indigence, neediness, hardship, a state of being extremely poor inferior in quality and in amount or the scarcity and deficiency, shortages, absence or lack more in amount.