History Background The ideology of Nazism brought together elements of antisemitismracial hygieneand eugenicsand combined them with pan-Germanism and territorial expansionism with the goal of obtaining more Lebensraum living space for the Germanic people.
Major milestones in asteroid research Early discoveries The first asteroid was discovered on January 1,by the astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi at PalermoItaly. At first Piazzi thought he had discovered a comet ; however, after the orbital elements of the object had been computed, it became clear that the object moved in a planetlike orbit between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Because of illness, Piazzi was able to observe the object only until February Although the discovery was reported in the press, Piazzi only shared details of his observations with a few astronomers and did not publish a complete set of his observations until months later.
With the mathematics then available, the short arc of observations did not allow computation of an orbit of sufficient accuracy to predict where the object would reappear when it moved back into the night sky, so some astronomers did not believe in the discovery at all. Titius and popularized by his compatriot Johann E.
Some astronomers were so convinced that they agreed during an astronomical conference in to undertake a systematic search. Ironically, Piazzi was not a party to that attempt to locate the missing planet.
Nonetheless, Bode and others, on the basis of the preliminary orbit, believed that Piazzi had found and then lost it. That led German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss to develop in a method for computing the orbit of minor planets from only a few observations, a technique that has not been significantly improved since.
The orbital elements computed by Gauss showed that, indeed, the object moved in a planetlike orbit between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
It was also rediscovered independently by German astronomer Wilhelm Olbers on January 2, Piazzi named that object Ceres after the ancient Roman grain goddess and patron goddess of Sicilythereby initiating a tradition that continues to the present day: The discovery of three more faint objects in similar orbits over the next six years— PallasJuno, and Vesta —complicated that elegant solution to the missing-planet problem and gave rise to the surprisingly long-lived though no longer accepted idea that the asteroids were remnants of a planet that had exploded.
Following that flurry of activity, the search for the planet appears to have been abandoned untilwhen Karl L. In he discovered a fifth asteroid, which he named Astraea. Herschel proposed the term in at a meeting of the Royal Society.
However, it was not accepted until the midth century, when it became clear that Ceres and the other asteroids were not planets. There were 88 known asteroids bywhen the next major discovery was made: Daniel Kirkwoodan American astronomer, noted that there were gaps now known as Kirkwood gaps in the distribution of asteroid distances from the Sun see below Distribution and Kirkwood gaps.
The introduction of photography to the search for new asteroids inby which time asteroids had been identified, accelerated the discovery rate. The asteroid designated Brucia, detected inwas the first to be discovered by means of photography.
By the end of the 19th century, had been found, and that number grew toby the end of the 20th century and was more thanin the second decade of the 21st century. Later advances In the Japanese astronomer Hirayama Kiyotsugu recognized clustering in three of the orbital elements semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination of various asteroids.
One astronomical unit is the average distance from Earth to the Sun—about million km [93 million miles]. About the same time, calculations of the lifetimes of asteroids whose orbits passed close to those of the major planets showed that most such asteroids were destined either to collide with a planet or to be ejected from the solar system on timescales of a few hundred thousand to a few million years.
Since the age of the solar system is approximately 4. At first that source was thought to be comets that had been captured by the planets and that had lost their volatile material through repeated passages inside the orbit of Mars. It is now known that most such objects come from regions in the main asteroid belt near Kirkwood gaps and other orbital resonances.
During much of the 19th century, most discoveries concerning asteroids were based on studies of their orbits.
The vast majority of knowledge about the physical characteristics of asteroids—for example, their size, shape, rotation period, compositionmass, and density—was learned beginning in the 20th century, in particular since the s. The discussion below follows that progression in knowledge, focusing first on asteroids as orbiting bodies and then on their physical nature.
Geography of the asteroid belt Geography in its most-literal sense is a description of the features on the surface of Earth or another planet.
Three coordinates— latitude, longitudeand altitude —suffice for locating all such features. Similarly, the location of any object in the solar system can be specified by three parameters—heliocentric ecliptic longitude, heliocentric ecliptic latitude, and heliocentric distance.To access the new Vendor Information Pages (VIP) you must select one of the options available through AccessVA login: Veteran Small Business Owners: DS Login: Veterans (including Veterans Small Business Owners (Veteran Owned Small Business (VOSB) or Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) or their business representatives who are also Veterans.
Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS, described Dachau as “the first concentration camp for political prisoners”.
The camp became a model for the other camps the Nazis were to set up across the whole of occupied Europe. Concentration camp: Concentration camp, internment center for political prisoners and members of national or minority groups who are confined for reasons of state security, exploitation, or punishment, usually by executive decree or military order.
Persons are placed in such camps often without benefit of either indictment or fair trial. The concentration camps, T he Nazis set up their first concentration camp, Dachau, in the wake of Hitler’s takeover of power in By the end of the war, 22 main concentration camps were established, together with around 1, affiliate camps, Aussenkommandos, and thousands of .
May 30, · Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp, opened in , shortly after Adolf Hitler () became chancellor of Germany. Located in southern Germany, Dachau initially housed political prisoners; however, it eventually evolved into a death camp where countless thousands of Jews died from malnutrition, disease and overwork or were executed.
Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, founded in on the site of the Auschwitz concentration camp, Poland. Gianni Tortoli/Photo Researchers The death camp and slave-labour camp were interrelated.