The eastern part in Asia extended to the Pacific Ocean to the east and Afghanistan to the south, and, except some areas in Central Asiawas much less populous.
Mikhail Gorbachev in Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 11,three hours after predecessor Konstantin Chernenko 's death at age Gorbachev, aged 54, was the youngest member of the Politburo.
His initial goal as general secretary was to revive the Soviet economyand he realized that doing so would require reforming underlying political and social structures. This liberalizationhowever, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union.
Under Gorbachev's leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in introduced limited competitive elections to a new central legislature, the Congress of People's Deputies  although the ban on other political parties was not lifted until Prices of vodka, wine, and beer were raised in order to make these drinks more expensive and to discourage consumption and alcohol rationing was introduced.
Unlike most forms of rationing, which is typically adopted as a strategy to conserve scarce goods, this was done to restrict sales with the overt goal of curtailing drunkenness.
This mirrored Tsar Nicholas II 's program during the First World War, which was intended to eradicate drunkenness in order to bolster the war effort. However, that earlier effort was also intended to preserve grain for only the most essential purposes, which did not appear to be a goal in Gorbachev's program.
Gorbachev soon faced the same adverse economic reaction to his prohibition as did the last Tsar. The disincentivization of alcohol consumption was a serious blow to the state budget according to Alexander Yakovlevwho noted annual collections of alcohol taxes decreased by billion rubles.
Alcohol sales migrated to the black market and moonshining became more prevalent as some made "bathtub vodka" with homegrown potatoes. Poorer, less educated Soviets resorted to drinking unhealthy substitutes such as nail-polish remover, rubbing alcohol, or men's cologne, resulting in an additional burden on Russia's healthcare sector due to the increased poisoning cases.
On July 1,Gorbachev promoted Eduard ShevardnadzeFirst Secretary of the Georgian Communist Partyto full member of the Politburo, and the following day appointed him minister of foreign affairsreplacing longtime Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko.
Gromyko was relegated to the largely ceremonial position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet officially Soviet Head of Stateas he was considered an "old thinker.
In the fall ofGorbachev continued to bring younger and more energetic men into government. At the next Central Committee meeting on October 15, Tikhonov retired from the Politburo and Talyzin became a candidate.
Sakharov[ edit ] Gorbachev continued to press for greater liberalization. On December 23,the most prominent Soviet dissident, Andrei Sakharovreturned to Moscow shortly after receiving a personal telephone call from Gorbachev telling him that after almost seven years his internal exile for defying the authorities was over.
Its name refers to the human-rights statements of the Helsinki Accords.
Helsinki was the first openly anti-Communist organization in the U. Protesters swelled to 1, then to 5, as other students joined the crowd. Clashes between the security forces and the demonstrators continued throughout the night in Almaty.
On the next day, December 18, protests turned into civil unrest as clashes between troops, volunteers, militia units, and Kazakh students turned into a wide-scale confrontation. The clashes could only be controlled on the third day. The Alma-Ata events were followed by smaller protests and demonstrations in ShymkentPavlodarKaragandaand Taldykorgan.
Reports from Kazakh SSR authorities estimated that the riots drew 3, people. Both of them had died due to blows to the head. About others were detained and several others were sentenced to terms in labor camps. The writer Mukhtar Shakhanov claimed that a KGB officer testified that protesters were killed, but that figure remains unconfirmed.
He proposed that future Communist Party elections should offer a choice between multiple candidates, elected by secret ballot. However, the CPSU delegates at the Plenum watered down Gorbachev's proposal, and democratic choice within the Communist Party was never significantly implemented.
Gorbachev also radically expanded the scope of Glasnoststating that no subject was off-limits for open discussion in the media.
Even so, the cautious Soviet intelligentsia took almost a year to begin pushing the boundaries to see if he meant what he said.
For the first time, the Communist Party leader had appealed over the heads of Central Committee members for the people's support in exchange for expansion of liberties.
The tactic proved successful: Within two years political reform could no longer be sidetracked by party conservatives. An unintended consequence was that having saved reform, Gorbachev's move ultimately killed the very system it was designed to save.
The authorities did not break up the demonstration and even kept traffic out of the demonstrators' way while they marched to an impromptu meeting with Boris Yeltsin, head of the Moscow Communist Party and at the time one of Gorbachev's closest allies.
At the October 27, plenary meeting of the Central Committee, Yeltsin, frustrated that Gorbachev had not addressed any of the issues outlined in his resignation letter, criticized the slow pace of reform, servility to the general secretary, and opposition from Ligachev that had led to his Yeltsin's resignation.The assumption of the former Soviet Union's obligations by the four states means that the limits of the START Treaty will be applied collectively to the holdings of the four states on the territory of the former Soviet Union.
No separate quotas are established for individual states. The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) consists of 10 former Soviet Republics that differ in their membership status.
As of December , 9 countries have ratified the CIS charter and are full CIS members (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan), one country (Turkmenistan) is an associate member and two countries (Georgia, . Home» Copywriting» An analysis of the end for soviet parliament and the start of commonwealth of independent states A story of gray raccoon and a brown squirrel commonly referred to as the United States an analysis of the end for soviet parliament and the start of commonwealth of independent states (U S).
In early December, Yeltsin and the leaders of Ukraine and Belarus met in Brest to form the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), effectively declaring the demise of the Soviet Union. On December 25, , the Soviet hammer and sickle flag lowered for the last time over the Kremlin, thereafter replaced by the Russian tricolor.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was founded in after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Meetings are held periodically on a rotating basis at the CIS countries' capitals. An informal summit was held in Sochi, Russia in July Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union on December 8, , the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was founded, consisting of Russia, White Russia and the Ukraine.
On December 21 of the same year a further eight former Soviet republics joined the CIS—the states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan.