The board was dissolved and reconstituted as the Ghana Cocoa Board Cocobod. In it underwent further institutional reform aimed at subjecting the cocoa sector to market forces. The government shifted responsibility for crop transport to the private sector. Subsidies for production inputs fertilizersinsecticidesfungicidesand equipment were removed, and there was a measure of privatization of the processing sector through at least one joint venture.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies.
Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body.
The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems.
The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored.
The earliest evidence for the medical use of chocolate are to be found in Mesoamerican civilizations: At the end of the 16th century, the first botanical descriptions of the chocolate tree appeared in print in Europe and the first designated shipment of cacao reached Seville, paving the way to the spreading of the use of chocolate in the Old World [ 3 ].
The medical use of chocolate in European countries, however, has at least two main reasons: Moreover, the viaticum of the medical class could give good reason for drinking a very tasty beverage, which had exhilarating effects.
Christian Europe, in fact, looked to the new beverages, such as chocolate, coffee and tea, with extreme suspiciousness, and often with a condemning attitude, as they had revolutionized alimentary habits and were also supposed to upset moral behaviors, owing to their amorous properties and exciting effects.
Therefore, the acknowledgement of the benefits of chocolate has not had a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies [ 4 ]. Dietetics was one of the three main branches of ancient medicine, and the term diet had a very broad meaning, encompassing all the areas that were not determined automatically by nature and that humans thus had to plan on their own.
According to the teachings of classical medicine, formulated by the Greek physician Hippocrates 5th century B. Diet, that is, lifestyle, had to respect several fundamental parameters that, in turn, were based on the knowledge of human nature and its temperaments and recognition of the quality of foods: In the diet of the sick, the differences in regimen were dictated also by three other factors: The objective in this case was to restore health; timing was closely monitored by the physician and food was administered in carefully controlled quantities.
The call for moderation and measure, with an eye to the close relationship between bodily health and that of the soul, had already been emphasized. Dietary conduct and behavior were regulated quite specifically, according to the humoral and allopathic tradition of Hippocratic medicine.
Chocolate in Diet When the use of chocolate was introduced into Western Europe, its euphoriant effects were immediately evident, to the extent that the Church stated that a religious fasting would be invalidated by drinking chocolate.
It was only in that Cardinal Brancaccio declared that liquidum non frangit jejunum or that drinking liquid [chocolate] does not constitute a break in fasting.
Meanwhile, if Europeans wanted to drink chocolate, it could only be for medicinal reasons! Therefore, doctors hastened to assert that chocolate was a healthy substance and used this argument to promote its pleasurable effects, consequently boosting the lucrative trade in this exotic import.
From this starting point, the history of the medical use of chocolate can be reconstructed through two main kinds of sources. The first one regards the Mesoamerican tradition: The second approach was centered on the identification of the qualities of cacao and chocolate, in the frame of the Hippocratic-Galenic medicine: It was a very precious substance and, therefore, reserved for priests, highest government officials, military officers and great warriors, and it was supposed to be unsuitable for women and children [ 2 ].
The first Europeans to encounter cacao were travelers. Carletti wrote a detailed description of the cacao growing and chocolate making processes and stated that chocolate was a very strengthening mixture prepared using cacao and water [ 7 ].
He maintained that drinking large quantities of green cocoa made imbibers confused and deranged, but if taken in moderation, the beverage was invigorating and refreshing [ 8 ].Pardis Fakhr Commercial Company, due to its long history, the quality of their goods and services, the wide range of customers and continued growth and development policy, the distribution of raw materials and manufacturers of reputation is paramount and is well known in many countries in the world.
Introduction and History of Cadbury - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. in a shortage of cocoa was reported in UK.
The cost of cocoa has increased and distribution would increase and deliver £m in revenue synergies.(BBC News, )3/5(2). History & Culture The city was founded by fishermen very early in Florida's history.
An authentic, historical account states that the first families arrived in Cocoa around Thesis: The development and distribution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's society because of it's active role in daily health.I.
History of CocoaA. Kakahutal Mayan and Aztec CultureB. Introduction . INTRODUCTION HISTORY OF BANKS DIH LIMITED METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Long before Peter took over, the Cocoa and Chocolate business and the Shipping Agency Our Manufacturing, Sales and Distribution functions have been strengthened through.
The world’s largest producer of cocoa is the Ivory Coast, producing 43 percent of the world’s cocoa, 2 which is twice as much as the next biggest producer, Ghana.
3. Cocoa Supply Chain. Cocoa beans are grown on trees in hot, shady environments.