Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development: Young Adults The young adult has numerous stresses placed upon them through the route of development. Erikson has theorised developmental stages of growth into tasks.
Over the first six weeks of life, these reflexes begin to become voluntary actions. For example, the palmar reflex becomes intentional grasping.
The main focus is still on the infant's body". Also at this phase, passive reactions, caused by classical or operant conditioningcan begin.
Three new abilities occur at this stage: At this stage, infants will intentionally grasp the air in the direction of a desired object, often to the amusement of friends and family. Secondary circular reactions, or the repetition of an action involving an external object begin; for example, moving a switch to turn on a light repeatedly.
The differentiation between means and ends also occurs.
This is perhaps one of the most important stages of a child's growth as it signifies the dawn of logic. This is an extremely important stage of development, holding what Piaget calls the "first proper intelligence ". Also, this stage marks the beginning of goal orientationthe deliberate planning of steps to meet an objective.
Piaget describes the child at this juncture as the "young scientist," conducting pseudo-experiments to discover new methods of meeting challenges. This marks the passage into the preoperational stage. Pre-operational stage[ edit ] By observing sequences of play, Piaget was able to demonstrate that, towards the end of the second year, a qualitatively new kind of psychological functioning occurs, known as the pre-operational stage, the second of Piaget's four developmental stages.
During the pre-operational stage of cognitive development, Piaget noted that children do not yet understand concrete logic and cannot mentally manipulate information. However, the child still has trouble seeing things from different points of view.
The children's play is mainly categorized by symbolic play and manipulating symbols. Such play is demonstrated by the idea of checkers being snacks, pieces of paper being plates, and a box being a table.
Their observations of symbols exemplifies the idea of play with the absence of the actual objects involved. The pre-operational stage is sparse and logically inadequate in regard to mental operations.
The child is able to form stable concepts as well as magical beliefs. The child, however, is still not able to perform operations, which are tasks that the child can do mentally, rather than physically. Thinking in this stage is still egocentricmeaning the child has difficulty seeing the viewpoint of others.
The Pre-operational Stage is split into two substages: The symbolic function substage is when children are able to understand, represent, remember, and picture objects in their mind without having the object in front of them.Socialization refers to the ways in which people learn to conform to their society??s norms, values, and roles.
Primary socialization consists of the ways in which the newborn individual is molded into a person who can interact with others according to the expectations of society.
This is the Fred Rogers we know: a thin, wholesome man straight out of a small-town pulpit, with a gentle manner, who looks directly at us, speaks slowly and tells us that he likes us just the way we are.
This is the man Canadians have been watching since October , when Misterogers was a fifteen-minute black-and-white children’s program on the CBC that lasted nine months.
- Erik Erikson presented eight stages of human development, which last throughout an entire life-span. Throughout each developmental stage, each developmental task presents a catastrophe for the individual.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage of Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately 3 years. In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages.
Each stage – the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, and the genital – is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive. Biography. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, There is a little mystery about his heritage: His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born.