It was handwritten in crabbed penmanship so that it was very difficult to read.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Typically for any theory to be accepted within most academia there is one simple criterion.
The essential criterion is that the theory must be observable and repeatable.
The aforementioned criterion is essential to prevent fraud and perpetuate science itself. The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the Essay on the theory of relativity century.
Plate tectonic theory successfully explains numerous observations about the Earth, including the distribution of earthquakes, mountains, continents, and oceans. The defining characteristic of all scientific knowledge, including theories, is the ability to make falsifiable or testable predictions.
The relevance and specificity of those predictions determine how potentially useful the theory is. A would-be theory that makes no observable predictions is not a scientific theory at all. Predictions not sufficiently specific to be tested are similarly not useful.
In both cases, the term "theory" is not applicable. A body of descriptions of knowledge can be called a theory if it fulfills the following criteria: It makes falsifiable predictions with consistent accuracy across a broad area of scientific inquiry such as mechanics.
It is well-supported by many independent strands of evidence, rather than a single foundation. It is consistent with preexisting experimental results and at least as accurate in its predictions as are any preexisting theories. Other criteria[ edit ] In addition, scientists prefer to work with a theory that meets the following qualities: It can be subjected to minor adaptations to account for new data that do not fit it perfectly, as they are discovered, thus increasing its predictive capability over time.
This is because for each accepted explanation of a phenomenon, there may be an extremely large, perhaps even incomprehensible, number of possible and more complex alternatives, because one can always burden failing explanations with ad hoc hypotheses to prevent them from being falsified; therefore, simpler theories are preferable to more complex ones because they are more testable.
The formal scientific definition of theory is quite different from the everyday meaning of the word.
It refers to a comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a vast body of evidence. Many scientific theories are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them substantially. For example, no new evidence will demonstrate that the Earth does not orbit around the sun heliocentric theoryor that living things are not made of cells cell theorythat matter is not composed of atoms, or that the surface of the Earth is not divided into solid plates that have moved over geological timescales the theory of plate tectonics One of the most useful properties of scientific theories is that they can be used to make predictions about natural events or phenomena that have not yet been observed.
A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment.
Such fact-supported theories are not "guesses" but reliable accounts of the real world. The theory of biological evolution is more than "just a theory". It is as factual an explanation of the universe as the atomic theory of matter or the germ theory of disease. Our understanding of gravity is still a work in progress.
But the phenomenon of gravity, like evolution, is an accepted fact. Note that the term theory would not be appropriate for describing untested but intricate hypotheses or even scientific models.
The first observation of cellsby Robert Hookeusing an early microscope. The scientific method involves the proposal and testing of hypothesesby deriving predictions from the hypotheses about the results of future experiments, then performing those experiments to see whether the predictions are valid.
This provides evidence either for or against the hypothesis. When enough experimental results have been gathered in a particular area of inquiry, scientists may propose an explanatory framework that accounts for as many of these as possible. This explanation is also tested, and if it fulfills the necessary criteria see abovethen the explanation becomes a theory.
This can take many years, as it can be difficult or complicated to gather sufficient evidence. Once all of the criteria have been met, it will be widely accepted by scientists see scientific consensus as the best available explanation of at least some phenomena.
It will have made predictions of phenomena that previous theories could not explain or could not predict accurately, and it will have resisted attempts at falsification.
The strength of the evidence is evaluated by the scientific community, and the most important experiments will have been replicated by multiple independent groups. Theories do not have to be perfectly accurate to be scientifically useful.
|Moral Relativism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||To Jenkins' Spoiler-Laden Guide to Isaac Asimov Introduction Though perhaps best known throughout the world for his science fiction, Isaac Asimov was also regarded as one of the great explainers of science.|
|For an Overview of Quantum Theory click here to visit our sister site:||Please read that instead. Your friends and colleagues are talking about something called "Bayes' Theorem" or "Bayes' Rule", or something called Bayesian reasoning.|
For example, the predictions made by classical mechanics are known to be inaccurate in the relatistivic realm, but they are almost exactly correct at the comparatively low velocities of common human experience.
For example, certain tests may be unfeasible or technically difficult.The Space-Time Continuum of the General Theory of Relativity is Not a Eculidean Continuum Exact Formulation of the General Principle of Relativity The Solution of the Problem of Gravitation on the Basis of the General Principle of Relativity Part III: Considerations on the Universe as a Whole Spacetime defined, Relativity and Quantum Theories explained, for both beginning and advanced visitors, with links to the Best Academic Websites.
View’s On Einstein’s Theory of Relativity When Proposed and as it Progressed - Einstein’s theory of relativity is a world renowned theory in which many have attempted to challenge it and have not been able to attain a specific conclusion to satisfy the theory.
Einstein's Theory of Relativity for Dummies. Most people think it was Einstein who, in the first decade of the twentieth century, came up with the theory of relativity – as if Albert was quietly working away in his patent office in Switzerland and, entirely on his own, managed to come up with a completely new theory of space and time.
His first paper on Special Relativity Theory, also published in , changed the world.
After the rise of the Nazi party, Einstein made Princeton his permanent home, becoming In , Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany/5. Moral Relativism.
Moral relativism is the view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (for instance, that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others. It has often been associated with other claims about morality: notably, the thesis that different cultures often exhibit radically different moral.