Experiment 2 analgesic action of morphine

People vary in sensitivity to kratom, and kratom from different sources can vary in potency sometimes quite a lotso these dosage estimates should be regarded as loose approximations. One should always start with a low dose when experimenting with a new batch of kratom.

Experiment 2 analgesic action of morphine

Used since time immemorial for its healing and aromatic properties, the health benefits of camphor are not only well known but wide ranging; from being Experiment 2 analgesic action of morphine as an expectorant, antiseptic and analgesic to having anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insect-repelling properties.

According to folklore, a lump of camphor was worn around the neck, in what were known as burlaps, to help protect against infection. Where does camphor oil come from?: The white, waxy crystalline substance was traditionally obtained through a distillation process from the wood and branches of the fragrant evergreen Cinnamomum Camphora tree.

Most natural camphor today however is distilled from the leaves in order to preserve the life of the tree. That said, sincethe majority of camphor on the market today is synthetically produced from turpentine oil. Though the Cinnamomum Camphora is native to China, Taiwan and Japan it has since been introduced to many countries including North America.

Renowned for its pungent aromatic odour, the tree is identifiable by its distinct smell when its leaves are crushed. Valued as a sacred scent in early Christianity and Islam it is still used in Hindu pooja ceremonies today. Its firmly established use as an expectorant in modern medicine would explain why, according to folklore, our ancestors wore it round their necks.

It is identified in the apothecary of Henry Hughes, who was born in and a pioneer in natural medicine, as being an effective chest rub when mixed with olive oil for the treatment of croup. When a cream or ointment containing camphor is rubbed onto the body, camphor vapors are released as a result of body heat, which when inhaled help to loosen mucus and clear the lungs.

It can also be inhaled through use of a steam vaporizer to help control coughs by producing a local anesthetic action to the throat. One study has shown camphor essential oil to have an anti-microbial effect on Streptococci bacteria, which can cause a range of infections which vary in severity from mild throat infections to life-threatening infections of the blood or organs.

It was also found to inhibit Enterococcus faecalis, a bacteria which can sometimes cause intestinal problems. Tiger balm for instance combines camphor with menthol both having the effect of triggering the skins cooling receptors and thus masking the underlying pain.

Associated Data

Despite being used as an analgesic for centuries and studies confirming its effectiveness in desensitizing sensory nerves, its precise mechanism of action is not known.

Studies do confirm however that it increases blood flow in both skin and muscle. From this we can draw the conclusion that it is beneficial for circulation. Camphor can also used as an insect repellent and in particular is used to keep mosquitos at bay.

It acts in a way similar to citronella by masking the smell of the carbon dioxide and chemicals produced by our body, which is what attracts mosquitos in the first place. To keep a room mosquito free, simply place a few tablets in a bowl of water or alternatively burn the essential oil.

Another of its uses is as an all-natural alternative to mothballs for protecting clothes, thereby avoiding the chemical naphthalene and its harmful effects.

To do this you can dilute 1 drop to approximately 6ml of carrier oil and dispense onto cotton wool balls. In addition, camphor oil has been found to be effective as an anti-fungal agent.

It is thought to be effective in treating nail fungi by increasing blood flow which in turn brings more fungus fighting cells to the infected area, with the added benefit of its analgesic effects bringing relief. Although there is a history of it having been used in medicine internally to treat hysteria, epilepsy and heart-related ailments it is highly toxic and ingestion is to be avoided.

It is not considered to be safe for use in pregnancy. Only white essential camphor oil should be used, the brown and yellow camphor oils are considered to be not only highly toxic but also carcinogenic.

Growing your own Camphor Tree: If you live in one of these areas you might consider growing a tree on your land and investing in a distiller for essential oils which can be sourced online.

Alternatively, you can find out more about creating your own distiller at home here. The Ultimate Survival Tree That Grows on Almost Every Street in America This evergreen produces shiny green oval leaves with distinct yellowish veins and a mass of cream colored flowers in the spring.

Experiment 2 analgesic action of morphine

To grow, it needs fertile sandy soil with a pH of between 4. Although it needs water when first transplanted, it can survive droughts once established. Be warned though, they grow very big, between 50 feet tall depending on the region and are capable of spreading twice as wide, with rapid expansion of roots!

For this reason, they have been declared an invasive species in Florida. The thousands of berries, much loved by bird-life can result in thousands of seedlings on your land. Making your own camphor solution: To make your own camphor solution, you can place the equivalent of 2 tablespoons of ground camphor crystals and add to a saucepan of two cups of coconut oil; the liquid will be flammable, so take care to gently heat until the crystals have dissolved.

Alternatively, you can simply leave balls of camphor tablets to infuse in a carrier oil and store in a dark glass jar. Making your own Camphor Salve: Melt half a cup of coconut oil with approximately 2 ounces of bees wax.Common or street names: Pink, Pinky, U4.

What is U or Pink? U, also known as “Pink”, "Pinky", or “U4” on the streets, is a synthetic opioid pain medication developed as a . Seevers and Pfeiffer 3found that heroin was analgesic, sedative, and sometimes euphoric for man (normal volunteers) at a dose of 2 mg.

total subcutaneously or intravenously, and that its action was more rapid in onset but of shorter duration than that of morphine. The euphoric effect of . David Thomas August 19, What if the mechanism of the placebo effect could be harnessed -- i.e. what if there was a way to get really good at using the placebo effect so that instead of 30%% effectiveness, it would be 80%% effective?

Experiment 2 analgesic action of morphine

Threshold = The effects are clearly apparent, but subtle. Mild = Typically the effects are stimulant-like. Moderate = The effects can be stimulant-like or sedative-euphoric-analgesic. In experiment 1, several doses of morphine were administered in consecutive min blocks to construct a cumulative morphine dose-response curve; in experiment 2, a single dose of morphine (5 mg/kg) was administered, and locomotor activity was measured for 20 min.

Oxycodone is a μ-opioid receptor agonist, used for the treatment of a large variety of painful disorders. Several studies have reported that oxycodone is a more potent pain reliever than morphine, and that it improves the quality of life of patients.

UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - Issue 2 -