At issue for the Jesuit Social Research Institute, from the perspective of Roman Catholic social teaching and thought, is the persistence of disproportionate advantage for white Americans in relationship to pervasive and persistent disproportionate disadvantage for people of color in every sphere of life including health, wealth, income, education, housing, and the criminal justice system. More than one issue among others, the contradiction between Gospel values and practices of racial inequality is scandalous. The contradiction between Roman Catholic and American claims for universal human dignity and equality, and the reality of social, political, and economic advantage that white Americans consciously and unconsciously accept and assume, betrays this scandal. Racial prejudice, in every form, the Roman Catholic Church states:
How do we reinforce structural inequality? What are the theoretical foundations and types of oppression? What are the different levels of oppression?
Johnson's "The Social Construction of Difference" discusses the creation and maintenance of difference in society through systemic privilege for the dominant "normal" class and systemic oppression for the subordinate "abnormal" class.
In every one of the 7 categories of race or ethnicity; gender; religion; sexual orientation; socioeconomic status; age; and physical or mental ability and more subcategoriesthe dominant class has systemic privilege while the subordinate class has systemic oppression.
This "socially constructed reality" is accepted by the members of that society as somehow objectively true. Finally, except in the rarest of circumstances, each individual is dominant in some categories while subordinate in other categories: As Tatum points out in "The Complexity of Identity," internalization of the "normal" dominant class traits and the "abnormal" subordinate class traits in the 7 categories and other categories in members of a society strongly supports and perpetuates the inequality as objective truths.
Externalization of those same traits is supported and perpetuated by interactions on the Meso level, according to Kirk's and Okarawa-Ray's "Who Am I?
Who Are My People? Structural inequality is also reinforced systemically. For example, the housing situation may be the result of individuals and organizations acting as allowed and perhaps situationally needed in society, yet the result is a housing situation systemically rigged against people in subordinate classes.
Lee Anne Bell's "Theoretical Foundations" analyzes theoretical bases of oppression. Oppression is pervasive because it is entrenched in individuals and laced through social institutions. It is also restrictive in that it works within social structures and material resources to constrain the chances and possibilities of a person in a subordinate class.
Oppression is also hierarchical in that it consists of a dominant, favored class through the subordination and disadvantage of the subordinate class. It is also complex, multiple and cross-cutting relationships in that it gives relative prejudices and disadvantages according to an individual's position within the 7 categories and other categories mentioned in Tatum's "The Complexity of Identity" and depending on the social context.
It is internalized, accepted as objectively true by the dominant and subordinate classes in all categories. It is manifested in a series of "isms" such as racism and classism, which have their own histories, characteristics, patterns and reinforcements.
As Iris Marion Young explains in "Five Faces of Oppression," the types of oppression include violence, exploitation, marginalization, powerlessness, and cultural imperialism. Violence, the most obvious type of oppression, is intended to damage, humiliate or destroy a subordinate person and subordinates justifiably fear random, unprovoked attacks on themselves or their property.
Exploitation is the use of people's labor to produce profit without fairly compensating them. In Capitalism, which highly values free trade, exploitation tends to create classes of "haves" or advantaged and "have-nots" or disadvantaged.
Finally, cultural imperialism is establishing the culture of the advantaged and making it the norm for all. In America, cultural imperialism made the culture of white, Judeo-Christian, English-speaking, heterosexual, able-bodied males the norm. There are 3 major levels of oppression: It is on the cultural level in terms of the values, norms, needs, language, standards of beauty, sex roles, logic, expectations and things as mundane as holidays.
How is our identity constructed? What is the "Cycle of Socialization? What are the levels of identity? What destructive influences does prejudice have?Race, Racism, and Whiteness.
Deeper assumptions about whiteness and non-whiteness have been socially constructed and re-inscribed throughout U.S. legal history. The interrelationship between cultural and legal construction of whiteness and non-whiteness is a powerful engine driving the continuity of racial assumptions that persist.
The social construction of race is based on privileges and availability of resources. Looking at society and the formation of race in a historical context, whites have always held some sort of delusional belief of a “white-skin privilege.” The concept of race has been socially constructed in a .
been socially and politically constructed? Provide an example of the social construction of race. Do some social and natural scientists question whether the term race is a meaningful concept? Limited Time Offer at Lots of rutadeltambor.com!!! We have made a special deal with a well known Professional Research Paper company to offer you up to 15 professional research papers per month for just $ These include how race is socially constructed and how the construction process connects with questions of biology, history, and power.
The essays also provide students with information about how and why we need to engage in meaningful, inclusive conversations about race in contemporary American society.
x GETTING REAL ABOUT RACE. The concept of race has been socially constructed in a way that is broad and difficult to understand. Social construction can be defined as the set of rules are determined by society’s urges and trends.