Primitive Communism[ edit ] The First Stage:
Her reign lasted for 63 years and seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have also created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have also been defences of it.
He saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic pruderyand complacency  — what G. Trevelyan similarly called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". The Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales a Scottish Reform Act and Irish Reform Act were Victorian period a time of separately.
Minor reforms followed in and Her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbournebut within two years he had resigned, and the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry. It proved a very happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe.
However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. Inthe Great Famine began to cause mass starvation, disease and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration;  To allow more cheap food into Ireland, the Peel government repealed the Corn Laws.
Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status of the Ottoman Empire,  a strategic consideration known as the Eastern Question.
On its conclusion in with the Treaty of ParisRussia was prohibited from hosting a military presence in the Crimea.
During —8, an uprising by sepoys against the East India Company was suppressed, an event that led to the end of Company rule in India and the transferral of administration to direct rule by the British government.
The princely states were not affected and remained under British guidance. Society and culture Evangelicals, Utilitarians and reform The central feature of Victorian era politics is the search for reform and improvement, including both the individual personality and the society.
First was the rapid rise of the middle class, in large part displacing the complete control long exercised by the aristocracy. Respectability was their code—a businessman had to be trusted, and must avoid reckless gambling and heavy drinking.
Second the spiritual reform closely linked to evangelical Christianity, including both the Nonconformist sects, such as the Methodists, and especially the evangelical or Low Church element in the established Church of England, typified by Lord Shaftesbury — Starting with the anti-slavery movement of the s, the evangelical moralizers developed highly effective techniques of enhancing the moral sensibilities of all family members, and reaching the public at large through intense, very well organized agitation and propaganda.
They focused on exciting a personal revulsion against social evils and personal misbehavior. They were not moralistic but scientific. Their movement, often called "Philosophic Radicalism," fashioned a formula for promoting the goal of "progress" using scientific rationality, and businesslike efficiency, to identify, measure, and discover solutions to social problems.
The formula was inquiry, legislation, execution, inspection, and report. Evangelicals and utilitarians shared a basic middle-class ethic of responsibility, and formed a political alliance.
The result was an irresistible force for reform. Even more important were political reforms, especially the lifting of disabilities on nonconformists and Roman Catholics, and above all, the reform of Parliament and elections to introduce democracy and replace the old system whereby senior aristocrats controlled dozens of seats in parliament.
This sketch is from an issue of Punchprinted in November that year. Religion was a battleground during this era, with the Nonconformists fighting bitterly against the established status of the Church of England, especially regarding education and access to universities and public office.
Penalties on Roman Catholics were mostly removed. The Vatican restored the English Catholic bishoprics in and numbers grew through conversions and immigration from Ireland.
Houghton argues, "Perhaps the most important development in 19th-century intellectual history was the extension of scientific assumptions and methods from the physical world to the whole life of man.The Victorian era was a period of dramatic change that brought England to its highest point of development as a world power.
The early Victorian period (–48) saw the opening of Britain’s first railway and its first Reform Parliament, but it was also a time of economic distress.
The Victorian Period revolves around the political career of Queen Victoria. She was crowned in and died in The Victorian Period Was a Time of Change. The Victorian Era was a period in Great Britain's history where the country as a whole moved ever more forward into the country we know today.
The mid-Victorian period was also a time when the British empire truly expanded around the globe (Australia, Canada, and India, for example)―all part and parcel of the prosperity made possible by the industrial revolution. The Victorian Period revolves around the political career of Queen Victoria.
She was crowned in and died in Post-Classical History – Period of time that immediately followed ancient history.
Depending on the continent, the era generally falls between the years CE – and CE – Depending on the continent, the era generally falls between the years CE – and CE –